View-dependent refinement of progressive meshes

View-dependent refinement of progressive meshes
Hugues Hoppe.
ACM SIGGRAPH 1997 Proceedings, 189-198.
Lossless multiresolution structure for incremental local refinement/coarsening.
Abstract: Level-of-detail (LOD) representations are an important tool for real-time rendering of complex geometric environments. The previously introduced progressive mesh representation defines for an arbitrary triangle mesh a sequence of approximating meshes optimized for view-independent LOD. In this paper, we introduce a framework for selectively refining an arbitrary progressive mesh according to changing view parameters. We define efficient refinement criteria based on the view frustum, surface orientation, and screen-space geometric error, and develop a real-time algorithm for incrementally refining and coarsening the mesh according to these criteria. The algorithm exploits view coherence, supports frame rate regulation, and is found to require less than 15% of total frame time on a graphics workstation. Moreover, for continuous motions this work can be amortized over consecutive frames. In addition, smooth visual transitions (geomorphs) can be constructed between any two selectively refined meshes.
A number of previous schemes create view-dependent LOD meshes for height fields (e.g. terrains) and parametric surfaces (e.g. NURBS). Our framework also performs well for these special cases. Notably, the absence of a rigid subdivision structure allows more accurate approximations than with existing schemes. We include results for these cases as well as for general meshes.
Hindsights: Further enhancements on this approach are presented in my Visualization 1998 paper.